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EU funding for sustainability and inclusion 22 February 2016

Posted by cooperatoby in EU.
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The Green Group in the European Parliament has compiled a very useful compendium of sources of European funding for sustainability and inclusion. Your Guide to EU Funding covers the ESF (p14), CLLD (p19), FEAD (p25) and everything else from Horizon 2020 downwards.

Download: http://www.greens-efa.eu/fileadmin/dam/Documents/2014_2020_YourGuidetoEUFundingLowRES.pdf

By contrast, as part of building up the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), the Commission has issued guidance on how to combine public and private funds – for instance in a ‘layered fund’ where the Structural Funds can be used to limit the risk too private investors.

Webpage: http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2016/02/22-02-2016-investment-plan-for-europe-new-guidelines-on-combining-european-structural-and-investment-funds-with-the-efsi

How to use CLLD 21 February 2016

Posted by cooperatoby in EU.
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LEADER in peopleCommunity-led local development means delegating development decisions to multistakeholder Local Action Groups. There’s a goldmine of info on how to implement CLLD from the FARNET transnational conference in Edinburgh on 8-10 Dec 15.

Well-proven through LEADER, CLLD is now taking off more broadly with €9.3 bn of ESIF funds allocated across 28 Member States and an expected 2,500 rural areas and 300 fisheries areas setting up LAGs and FLAGs. CLLD is also possible in urban areas in 11 MSs.
One key tip is how Poland uses 3 simplified cost options (SCOs), for:
– a lump sum for preparatory support (rather like the €15,000 preparatory grant in Flanders’s ESF transationality call in Jan 16 [link]
– a flat rate for running costs and animation
– a lump sum for business start-up

Another is how Sweden is using CLLD to integate migrants

Social innovation & migration 5 February 2016

Posted by cooperatoby in Social enterprise.
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I’ve been thinking briefly about the relevance of social innovation to migration. Many social innovations rely on one of two mechanisms: user involvement and new technologies.

On the first point, the people who facilitate migration are typically portrayed as exploiters – people traffickers – but they are clearly fulling a market niche. They are providing services that migrants want to buy. The principal problems are price and quality – i.e. a high profit is being made through providing unreliable and dangerous transport and accommodation. If the public sector is unwilling or unable to find solutions, and the private sector exploitative, is there a third way?

Could one look at addressing the problem from the users’ point of view? Before the Second World War, migrant services like the famous ”Kindertransport” were laid on by philanthropists. Today, those looking to emigrate for whatever reason could form co-operatives to manage good value, safe means of transport.

On the second point, migrants already apply new technologies to this social problem, even if only by using Google Maps. But surely some Uber-like matching of supply and demand could also be useful.

Objecting that all this is illegal is not only inaccurate but beside the point: just as in treating drug addiction as a medical rather than a criminal issue, this is all on the principle of harm reduction.

Missing links 29 November 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in EU, Social enterprise.

EQUAL archived website front pageThe other day I was dismayed to find that my habitual Google searches for ‘Social Business Initiative’ and ‘EQUAL’ didn’t work anymore. Both sites contain a wealth of useful reference documents on EU policy. Prime suspect was the Digital Transformation, the Commission’s search-and-destroy mission on its wonderful web presence, whose stated objective is to “help people find the information they are looking for quickly and easily” but which in fact has the opposite effect by erasing history and disabling countless external links.

Happily I found that links I’d previously written into Wikipedia articles still worked. What has happened is that the Commission has obscured them. In the case of the SBI it’s an accidental result of the merger between the Enterprise and Internal Market DGs, and in the case of EQUAL it seems to be sheer bloody-mindedness that the EQUAL archive site is hidden from search engines.

Anyway all is not lost. Here are the links: SBI: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/social-economy/enterprises/index_en.htm

EQUAL: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/equal_consolidated/

Quiet in the suburbs 24 November 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in Brussels.
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The picture the world is getting of life in a paralysed Brussels is a little overstated. Perhaps it’s a result of the massive concentration of journalists who normally report arcane policy battles – but don’t know very much about the town’s daily life.

So how was the first working day of the lockdown (warning: cat pictures)? I’m afraid I have nothing dramatic to report. I missed the weekend’s unfestivities since I escaped to Amsterdam before the metro closed, noticing only that the STIB had sealed the waste bins in the stations. Above ground all was normal. Arriving back at Midi on Monday morning on a very empty Thalys I expected to be greeted at the very least by a passport check, but apparently that is only for passengers travelling south to Paris. For me, not a camouflage jacket or a rifle to be seen. It was a minor inconvenience to have to walk to my flat, but that is mainly because they are renewing the tramtracks around St-Gilles town hall. From there on the good old 81 tram was still trundling its circumferential inner-city suburban route from St-Gilles to the AEIDL office in Etterbeek. Shops, cafes and restaurants are all open. I’d expected traffic gridlock, but the odd thing was that the streets were uncannily quiet. Many parents are at home looking after their children since the schools are closed. And after all we are having a cold snap.

At the office the tension mounted, because yesterday was a big day – the launch of our first ESF Thematic Network, on Partnership. We’d already had 2 cancellations – one a public official complying with her employer’s instructions to work from home – and the Commission had cancelled external meetings (but not internal ones). We feared we would have to eat all the buffet lunch ourselves. But with stalwart lack of drama 10 people found taxis and buses, and turned up. The meeting went off well, and was followed by dinner.

And this morning I’m overjoyed to find the replacement buses are back (some drivers had evidently declined to work on Monday) and contributing to the usual bidirectional traffic jam beneath my windows. I had to wait for the 2nd tram as the first one was jam-packed. I think everyone has woken up to the facts that (a) after a day’s lie-in they can’t suspend life for ever; and (b) there are trams that handily circumvent the city centre. It’s struck me that Brussels has temporarily become what Berlin used to be: a no-go area in the centre, with life going on pretty much as normal round about.

How to support innovation using the ESF 11 November 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in Social enterprise.
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Social innovation is one of the buzziest words of the last few years – but once it is mentioned the almost inevitable follow-up is – “whatever it means…” Everyone knows that social innovation is a good thing, and they want more of it, from more people. But how do they know whether they have it or not? Even more problematically, how can they encourage its emergence?
In some senses this dilemma is a long-standing one: the European Commission has habitually refused to answer the question “what is innovation?”, retorting that “if we knew what it was, it wouldn’t be innovation”. Sometimes I have suspected that European programmes place such a premium on innovation purely because that is the institutional space left for them – the day-to-day stuff is left to the Member State level.
The popularisation of the social innovation meme by President Barroso and others has raised the stakes. In transnational work in the ESF, for example, social innovation is supposed to be mainstreamed. And innovation has to be more than creativity – it implies rigorous management in making change happen.

Flanders institutionalises innovation

Flanders is a region that has got ahead through innovation, and the Flemish ESF Agency is one of the few to take a serious and structured approach to encouraging innovation. It devotes 8.5% of its ESF budget – €32m – to innovation and transnationality. On 26-27 October it held a seminar in Brussels to selflessly transfer to other ESF managers the results of an 18-month project to improve the way the ESF supports innovation: Meer werk maken van innovatie voor werkgelegenheid en arbeidsmarkt. The project involved partners from the Czech Republic, Sweden and Poland. 70 people from the ESF all over the EU community attended the event.
Project activities included a literature review, study visits and exchange events, and its results are presented in a comprehensive 396-page toolkit. This focuses on service development but also says something about systems innovation.

Theoretical framework

The first thing to say is that the seminar was hard work – and I mean that in a good way. The content was challenging – even the bits when the participants were supposed to have the luxury of sitting back and absorbing presentations. When it came to doing exercises the effort demanded was even more. But it was well worth the effort, and Benedict Wauters is to be thanked and congratulated for sharing his results.
The content was unique in my experience in that it combined the most abstruse of theory with the most hands-on of practice – and took in some illuminating practical examples along the way.
The theoretical framework Flanders has adopted is based on Theory U which emphasises interactions between people, works upwards to transition theory and has the final goal of improving human welfare and development.
The theoretical underpinning came in the form of presentations from two EU-funded research projects on what social innovation is.

• Theory 1: A multilevel theory of transition

The first is TRANSIT (Transformative Social Innovation Theory), presented by Flor Avelino from Erasmus University in Rotterdam.
In her vocabulary, a transition is the sort of high-level innovation that takes between 20 and 50 years to occur, and is further-reaching than the three lower levels, a systems innovation, a process innovation or a product or service innovation. Transitions evolve over time: the challenge of peak oil became that of climate change and is now all about the economic crisis.
She defined 3 levels of socio-economic processes:
• The highest level is the landscape or underlying process such as climate change and population ageing
• In the middle comes the socio-economic regime, or set of dominant practices – such as an oil-based economy
• At the lowest level come niches – spaces for innovation that are opened up by technological developments – such as wind power or car-sharing
The theory holds that the regime will defend the status quo, so one of these transitions will happen only when it gets caught in a pincer movement from both sides at once: caught between a shock in the landscape – such as climate change – and the opening up of a technological niche like a new form of energy generation. To my simple mind this is a more developed way of saying there has to be both a supply and a demand for innovations, and no barriers in the process of matching them. But the theory puts it in dialectical rather than market terms.
Flanders SI -  the bigger picture of innovation.
A multilevel strategy for transition management therefore involves playing into landscape developments, challenging regimes and empowering niches to scale up.
Social innovation involves a change in the social relations through which we know, frame, organise and do things. This brings to the fore the concept of agency – what can people do? It is expressed in a set of new social movements which challenge the status quo. The project is studying 20 of these, focusing on Europe and Latin America, and including Impact Hubs, Ecovillages, Fab Labs and RIPESS.
The project is looking at how different narratives of change interact, including, in the field of ‘new economy’, the green economy, the collaborative economy, social entrepreneurship and the social economy, and the solidarity economy – i.e. changing the whole economic system including the private and public sectors. What they have in common is that they are hybrid – they challenge the boundaries between public and private, formal and informal, and for- profit and non-profit. Above all, they involve a shift in power relations. However it is unclear how power is shifting – in the case, for example of Airbnb. What seems like a transformation may in fact be a capture by the existing regime.

• Theory 2: Capability theory

The second research project, CRESSI – Creating Economic Space for Social Innovation, was presented by Nadia von Jacobi of Pavia University. It is applying Amartya Sen’s Capability Theory to social innovation. Basically this holds that social progress is about expanding people’s opportunities; it is not only about the resources people have, but the choices they can make. From a given set of resources (or endowments) – which include the physical environment, institutions, social networks and cognitive frames – people are subject to a set of ‘conversion factors’ – such as their individual traits and the context they find themselves in – which determine the ‘capability set’ of choices they have open to them. Social innovation occurs when the functionings people achieve feeds back and influences the resources available.
If people are to have greater agency, they need to be empowered. They need to have various sorts of power:
• power over – you can resist manipulation by others
• power with – you can act in groups
• power to – you can create new possibilities
• power from within – you can change yourself
Social innovation involves people forming networks and exerting power on three forces in society: institutions, social networks and cognitive frames. This bottom-up approach overcomes the pitfalls of the top-down logic, which treats people, as target groups – patients rather than agents, underestimates complexity and assumes it is neutral with regard to the existing asymmetry of power.

An example of service design

As regards practical tool for social innovation, seminar participants had a choice of two, and I chose service design, presented by Kelly Pollard and Laure Monbrun of PearsonLloyd, a London-based designers. In the A Better A&E project the consultants worked with the UK Department of Health and the Design Council to improve the quality of the waiting experience in accident and emergency depart¬ments of hospitals. The objective was to reduce aggression and violence against A&E staff, of which there are 55,000 cases each year in the UK, which cost the NHS €95m.
Flanders A better A&E resultsThe process they undertook was a little counterintuitive. Instead of tackling head-on the relatively small number of case of direct physical violence, they decided to reduce the frustration patients felt all the way through their visit to A&E, thus improving the quality of life for a great many more people.
The process they went through is known as the ‘double diamond’ (not the beer I used to avoid in the 70s) and comprises 4 stages: discover -> define -> develop -> deliver. It involved talking to the stakeholders to learn about their behaviour and needs, mapping the patient experience, and developing a clear set of charts and signs which would make sure that patients knew what was happening to them at any given moment. They also produced guidance for staff and are developing a mobile phone application. Equipping a hospital costs about €80,000 and typically shows a return on investment of 3:1.

Designing ESF calls for innovation

The seminar’s third section showed us how Flanders organises ESF calls for innovative projects. It holds separate calls for two types of innovation:
• innovation via exploration – for people with a challenge they need to meet
• innovation via adaptation – for people with a service that works well and deserves scaling up

It gives each project a 100% grant of €50,000 for a first phase lasting 6 months, and if the result is validated (by external experts) then it gets a follow-up grant of up to €150,000.
Flanders SI double diamondThe process is rigorous: in the first 6 months, projects have to produce a concept description, an experience map, a high-level business model, a concept test, a report on field results – and plan for phase 2. It is estimated that about half the applicants will go through to phase 2, which lasts 18 months. Nevertheless Flanders has received about 30 applications under each heading, with a lot of universities figuring among the applicants, but also some NGOs.

Further information

Check out the toolkit and a series of presentations!

Austerlitz vs. Waterloo 11 June 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in Uncategorized.
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P1010044 Austerlitz PyramideWith one week to go until the bicentenary of the Battle of My Street (it’s next Thursday), we made a coincidental discovery.
On a sunny cycle ride through the forests between Amersfoort and Utrecht, we detoured to visit the strangely named village of Austerlitz. Napoleon’s army camped there, and named the place after the 1805 battle at what is now Slavkov in the Czech Republic. That battle was a victory for Napoleon, and his brother Louis Napoleon built a pyramid to commemorate it. After suffering some erosion it has been restored and equipped with a very gently Dutch uitspanning complete with ice cream, toy railway and various harmless amusements.
P1010050 butte du Lion info panel ironic about NapoleonAfter you have climbed the 80 steps to the top of the pyramid it is worth examining the very well-thought-out information panels mounted on the parapet. The panels are surprisingly generous to Louis Napoleon, who went native and introduced such useful attributes of civilisation as national unity, land surveys and surnames. But the panel comparing this pyramid with the Butte du Lion at Waterloo is memorably ironic:

    “On the top is a giant bronze Dutch lion, looking censoriously towards France. This monument was erected by King William I in memory of the heroism of his son on the battlefield. While ‘our’ Pyramid is a real French monument, the Butte du Lion is a Dutch memorial, despite the Walloons’ attempts to exploit it as homage to Napoleon.”

So the Dutch monument is in Belgium and the French monument is in Holland. The last clause is classic. You don’t often find Dutch nationalism in such a raw state!
How funny by the way that after the French objected to a special €2 coin being minted, Belgium has minted a €2½ one instead!

‘New’ social economy means non-social economy 15 May 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in social economy, Social enterprise.

Oh dear another attempt to redefine democracy out of existence.
In the footsteps of the terms social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, social business, social innovation and social investment, all of which, brandished in the wrong hands, seek to take the mantle of the social economy and depoliticise it, we now have a takeover bid for the very term social economy itself. It comes from about as far away from Europe as you can get in this world, California.
In her blog Lucy Bernholz notes that Rob Reich, also at Stanford has “coined” the phrase ‘new social economy’ to mean, wait for it:

    Organizations and financial structures that deploy private resources for shared social benefits – i.e. the sector formerly known as philanthropic, independent or nonprofit.

A presentation setting this out is here and an audio lecture about how the established model of the social economy needs to change is here.

It is simply extraordinary and leaves me speechless that the project is to redefine the social economy entirely in terms of impact investing, with nary a mention of the “social” dimension of any ownership, decision-making, production processes or impacts.

Progress Microfinance not reaching social enterprises 13 May 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in Social enterprise.
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The European Progress Microfinance Facility (EPMF) was intended to open up finance to social enterprises as well as other microenterprises. By March last year the 28 EPMF intermediaries had made 13,250 loans worth €125m. However its interim evaluation reports that only 4% of the loans went to social enterprises.

Some reasons for this are that social enterprises don’t make enough profit to repay a loan, and that they require larger loans than other microcredit borrowers (the maximum loan size is €25,000), and hence the lenders demand more collateral, which they don’t have. It notes that in countries such as Bulgaria they lack experience of borrowing and prefer to stick to grants, so instruments combining loan with grant may be more accessible.

The evaluators comment that take-up by social enterprises might have been higher if they had been a higher priority for the microfinance institutions which have benefited from EPMF loans and guarantees.

The EPMF is shortly to be augmented by another fund specifically targeting social enterprises, funded under the EaSI programme.

Visualising the interconnectedness of all things 15 January 2015

Posted by cooperatoby in cooperative, Leeds, Social enterprise.
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Twitter just alerted me to the existence of Wikigraph, a brilliant tool which shows the shortest path between two Wikipedia entries – and all the other pages they and the intervening links connect to. Here’s how close Suma is to being a social enterprise:

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